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tv   Capital News Today  CSPAN  May 30, 2011 11:00pm-2:00am EDT

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that burn and -- vernon was taught by his mother, and that your families and friends have taught you. i hope each of you recognizes these values and these challenges in yourself. if you let them be your guide, your life will be rich with personal and professional rewards, and you will run -- you will enrich the lives of those around you. on this very special day, i hope for all of you and your family and friends much celebration and accomplishment. thank you for allowing me to share this day with you. i wish every mother in this room and early happy mother's day. and every the job well done parents. best of luck to you for the
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class of 2011. tuesday on washington journal, associate editor of the atlantic looks at possible presidential candidates including mr. romney expected to kick off his campaign tomorrow. then we will discuss funding military operation. the house recently passed a defense plan, which the president has threatened to veto. after that, george mason university professor on the mission and goals of the rotc program. plus your emails, phone calls, on "washington journal" tuesday morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. from columbia south carolina, we go to oakland, california for the commencement ceremony at mills college. the first american civilian woman to world in post the second world war in japan.
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she helped one person secretly write the postwar constitution for japan. we will hear more about her story before the speech. this is have an hour. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] 1] >> it is my honor to introduce to you your commencement speaker for today. she was awarded an honorary degree on the occasion of her speech in 1991. i kept hearing about this amazing mills woman.
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at a very young age, she had graduated from mills college and how had gone directly to japan to be a part of the writers of the japanese constitution after the second world war. she was the author of a section of the constitution that guarantees women equal rights in japan. th[applause] for me, the notion that i would leave my presidency, never having heard her speak to mills women about her experience, i must admit, this is a little bit selfish on my part. i wanted her to speak on this 20th anniversary for me. but i also know that you, the many members of this class, wanted to hear from this
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extraordinary woman as well. she is a member of the class of 1943. at the age of 22, she was recruited by general douglas macarthur, macarthur boulevard to create the japanese constitution. she worked in secret after the conclusion of the war, the second world war, and she was there for nine days in 1946. as a young person, she grew up in japan from the age of five. the child of jewish immigrants from russia. she was interested in japanese culture, fluent in japanese. in 1939, she lath -- left tokyo to come to mills further --
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college at the age of a 15. how frightening that must have banned about leaving home and wondering if you would ever go home again, because your country was going to war. she did not speak about her contributions until she was asked by the japanese government to discuss the amendments, both article 14 in 24, that proclaims the quality of the sexes. her work has inspired so many amazing tributes, including a documentary film, and her own memoir, the only woman in the room. she is a performing arts director for the japan society in the asia society.
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throughout her life, she continues to bring connections between asia and the united states and the rest of the world. she currently lives in new york city and she lectures frequently at schools, universities, and other institutions. we are going to hear from this honorary degree recipients. although we are not bestowing an honorary degree today, i think it is time for her to have a "m".l em please come forward and present to us your words of wisdom. [applause]
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>> president, board of trustees, faculty, ladies and gentlemen. it is a great honor to have been invited to give the last commencement speech under the eye of our highly respected and beloved president janet. i think however it is the committee that selected me for this honor was influenced by a mistake the state department
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made in 1945 when its issued made a passport so i could go to japan and work for general macarthur's headquarters. in the state department application, there was a form entitled occupation i wrote down research experts. [laughter] the state department left out the word research. [laughter] and i ended up with my occupation listed as the expert. [laughter] [applause] i do know japan and the
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japanese language, and i know research. that was it. i stand before you now as a mills college graduate, class of 1943. [applause] as a mother and a grandmother, as the first civilian woman to work in the occupation of japan , and as the writer of the women's civil rights laws in the new japanese constitution. [applause] born in vienna, i accompanied my father and my mother to japan for a concert tour when i was
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five and a half years old. when the academy asked me to teach, my father and my mother's incenses -- insistence never cited condit for more than a year, because she wanted the option of returning to vienna. my father did as she had asked, and signed a year's contract 17 times. and so, i grew up in japan and iran ready for college applied to mills college. first, it was because it was a women's college. [applause] secondly, because by location it was the nearest college to japan. [laughter]
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thirdly, because it was one of the few u.s. colleges known in japan. i was not yet 16 when i arrived at mills hall in 1939. the culture shock was strong. we had to wear formal evening clothes for the first night dinner of the fall semester. the silk evening dress i thought appropriate was wrinkled. i did not know how to iron. having only irid my dolls dressed as in japan, when i went into the laundry room and put my address on the ironing board, i saw the score -- skirt was all
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in pleats. i had no idea how to iron pleats. i started to cry. and upper-class men walked by and asked why i was crying. when i explained my dilemma, she offered to iron the dress for me if i promised to lend her my iron during the coming semester, because she did not have one. i was delighted by this excellent exchange, and promised myself never to buy a pleated dress again. [laughter] i also did not know how to make a bed or do laundry. in japan, we had a service all of this, and i soon learned a
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strange american ways. she encouraged us to study hard for a career, so we would be able to compete on an equal basis with men. women suffered from discrimination, particularly in the business world. mills was determined to prepare its students for the struggle ahead i had seen discrimination against women in japan. women had no rights at all. the of arranged marriages were
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often unhappy. the women sometimes did not even meet their future spouses until just before the wedding. women were not trained for careers and did not obtain work that interested them. women had no inheritance, no rights to choose their own domicile. the education i received at mills from my professors, the speech years i -- speeches i heard on campus about social and economic issues, the exposure i had to men and women, dedicated to the advancement of women, profoundly influenced my life's work. my field at mills was language
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and literature. i was lucky to have small classis. the biggest one was 14 students in my spanish class. i was the only student in my russian-language and might japanese history class. when the war began and recruiters from government agencies came to mills to look for students who knew japanese, i found myself much sought after, because at the beginning of the war, there were only 65 caucasians in the whole of the u.s. who new japanese. i accepted the job offer of the foreign broadcast intelligence service. i would broadcast from japan and
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translate them from seven languages, seven hours a day. after a year and a half, i switched to the office of war information, where i had my own propaganda show with music sent to japan, in which i urged the japanese to stop the war. while working, i was unable to finish college by president reinhard, who felt that my war efforts deserve help from the college. she let me finish my senior courses with term papers and examinations, without attending classes. in 1945, towards the end of the
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war, i move to the city and worked as a researcher at time magazine, and in december 1945, i got a job as a member of general macarthur's staff in tokyo. i was 22 years old. on a snowy, february day in 1946, when i came to my office in the government section of general headquarters, general macarthur's favorite adviser announced the following as a top secret meeting in his office. by order of general macarthur, you are now a constituent assembly, and you'll write the new democratic constitution of japan, and you shall write it in
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seven days. the 20 men and women that in attendance were stunned. especially since we knew that macarthur had asked the japanese government officials to write a new democratic constitution, which they were apparently incapable of doing. for a moment, there was silence. then we were rushed to our desks and waited for the deputy chief of staff to give us our assignments. i was a member and a cessation made up of a former anthropology professor, the profession --
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professor of japanese history. we were assigned to write the chapter on the rights of the people. one person said we cannot read this chapter has a meeting. we only have seven days. we must divide the work. the two man looked at me and the colonel said, you are a woman, so why don't you write the clause on women's rights. i was thrilled. having been well trained in research, i left the answer -- office to find libraries in bombed out tokyo, so i could
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borrow the constitutions of other countries to serve as samples from which i could get inspiration. when i brought 10 constitutions back to the office, i became very popular. everyone wanted to follow them. after all, just like me, they had never written a constitution before. we worked day and night. when i presented my draft to the steering committee, one read it and said, you have given more
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rights to the japanese women band in the u.s. constitution. [applause] i stood up and said, colonel, that is not difficult to do. [laughter] [applause] not difficult to do since the u.s. constitution does not have the word woman in the constitution at all. the social welfare clause as did not belong in the constitution but in a civil court -- code according to one person. i replied that the bureaucratic japanese men that would write
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that code would never put in social welfare clauses unless they had already been included in the constitution itself. i cried. this time about a more important item. that is the first time i cried. realizing, i would realize that the committee would only consider the fundamental right i had written as a sensible with the japanese constitution. regretfully, i saw my draft reduced. nevertheless, it revolutionized the status of women in japan, because it guaranteed women's civil rights based on the
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quality of men and women. [applause] i thought my work was done. one month later, there was a meeting with the japanese government officials. this time, i was to act as interpreter, a translator. we were going to check on how the japanese translated our draft and what changes they now had made. the long arguments about the correct words that had to be used and many other matters would constitute a meeting lasting a few hours. it became a 32 hour about. at 2:00 a.m., the women's rights
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clause came up for discussion. the japanese officials said that the article should be completely changed. if it did not fit japanese history, culture, and custom. the colonel had insisted that the japanese officials, not knowing that i had been the drafter of the article was favorably inclined, because i was a quick interpreter and had helped their japanese team. they took advantage of the situation and said some complimentary things about me ending with, she has her heart set on women's rights, so why don't we just pass them a.
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i think it was such a shock that the japanese said, all right, let's do it. so now you know how history is made. sometimes. i told you at the beginning that i am not an expert, but i do know that we failed to lead you -- leave you a peaceful world. although at the end of world -- the second world war, we were convinced there would never be a war again, the last 65 years prove us wrong. i hope that the class 2011 feels
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well prepared by the janet, not only for dynamic ideas, but with her emphasis on multiculturalism, her efforts to the advance women's leadership and all of the many other events this -- advantages she has given you at mills. i hope this will inspire you to create a peaceful world where all can live in harmony. the japanese constitution's peace clause can guide you. it abolishes belligerency to
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other countries. only in defense of its own country is permitted. you are well educated and devoted mills graduates. my hope is that you will need what w. e. b. du bois said. to have satisfying work and work that the world needs is as near to heaven as one can get. this is what i wish for you the class of 2011 from the bottom of my heart. thanks. [applause]
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>> thank you so much. thank you. a woman that has changed the world continues to change the world for a more peaceful and just society. thanks. [applause] >> tuesday, remarks from house minority leader on a sector in the u.s.. he will speak about the center for american progress. it starts live at 11:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. while the senate is out of a session this week, the house will gather for legislative business. on his agenda, a bill sponsored that is aimed at raising the nation's debt ceiling by $2.40 trillion without the company any
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cuts or budget process changes. also spending bills on building affairs. follow the house live on c-span when members gavel back in on tuesday. on september 25, 1957, some students helped integrate an rock high school. earlier this month, one of the little rock nine was invited to address the law school commencement at the university of arkansas in little rock. she spoke about the struggles in her lifetime and what it means to graduate. this is 20 minutes.
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>> when i first started talking about the talk at the school of law, i cannot think about anything that had to do with the law. i do not know anything. my daughter reminded me using words that questioned my mental health and that indeed i might know something about the law. she reminded me that i went to jail for sitting, and i am a convicted a tree hugger. [laughter] i have been known to sit in the front seat of a city bus. the absolute worst, i took steps from the white water fountain when i was a little girl. [applause] i really am a criminal.
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but i am in the right place. i believe that most of us grow up oblivious without any real thought about the law. just imagine the pressure i feel when looking at you, the dream i dreamed as a teenager. you are it. if i wanted to do something that was not allowed by jim crow laws, i was told casually that it is against the law. no explanation, no discussion. it was just against the law. i went to school, church, and those places that were open to me. i was expected to go to college and become a teacher, or i could have become a domestic. when someone's cousin visited from chicago and told us, you
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cannot do anything down here, i thought it was because i was in arkansas. those situations could have narrowed my thinking, predicted my life chances. in truth, it cannot shut down our minds. i went every saturday to the colored branch of the library. the librarian would wait there with a stock of books that i -- a stack of books that she thought i would be interested in. i lived in a world of reading in books. no matter that i discovered much later in life that that library [unintelligible]
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no matter what restrictions that are put on us in different ways and in different situations, we are responsible for our own education. law school or any other institution only gives us a grounding. the rest is up to us. i would love to give you advice for your lives, but i am a person that still does not know what i am. to do when i grow up. i say that, because there is so much to learn, places to go, people to meet. i've become a larger and different person every day. they call it a lifelong learning. let that be your goal. what i know about lawyers is that as a teenager, i was in the company of some of the greatest
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legal minds that argued the browns a decision. i was sitting in the middle of a lawyer's, who were trying to explain to me that i was part of a situation that was a constitutional conflict. i came to know that social change happens as a result of litigation and agitation. i have a ragged a poster that i keep in view. i have for many years. at the bottom is a helen keller " -- quotation. life is either a daring a censure or nothing. it never fails to make me think. to and aboute
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myself, because i am no stranger to daring adventures. i think about the phrase in relation to helen keller, who did not have hearing or site. but a theory adventure for her to communicate with others to express her thoughts, to write and interact with friends, family, and ultimately the world. thinking about that phrase, a question emerges. do we choose daring adventures, or do they choose us? the jury is out on that. some days, it means that i have memories of what once seemed impossible and now, then and now
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it is possible in all of its complexity and unpredictability. dear graduates, you are the proof of that. i bring the memories into this time of a completely different set of knowledge as. today we consider it egypt, libya and as a definitive struggle for freedom. we often do not consider them in times when many of us in my generation -- at the same level of frustration and fear as they feel now. i rarely hear mentioned of the 5000 children who were arrested in birmingham. we do not talk about the dead of at least three civil rights groups in mississippi, for the 50th anniversary of the freedom riders.
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we may not think that for many, the vote was only granted in 1965 with the voting rights act. maybe the woman struggled -- struggle has many in the modern age, where women outnumber men in college. in 1972, women aren't exactly the seventh percents of law degrees? by 2001, 47% of the law degrees. thank goodness you know about such things. i know we do not have to know outside for social struggle, we can look right here. it is important for us to look right here, so that we know how privileged we are to live in
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this kind of opportunity for all students. you are at the forefront of what is possible, my dear graduates. what are our social obligations. in our eyes, we must override a social conditions. did we -- that ours is the only way. it that they must be the same as us. the them and us make us forget that we are interrelated, interconnected, and interdependent. i have learned a few things over time. one is based on looking at counseling a service for refugee men and women. i learned most about my own culture by hanging out with
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them. i learned to leave my baggage when encountering these women. it was amazing the rich reward are received from them, when i discovered that our deeply held desires for ourselves and all of humanity were exactly the same. i learned to shut up in the wilson, ignoring my limited knowledge of the people i was meeting. leaving my limited knowledge is the key. that small knowledge exists often in stereotypical images that stops a real communication. i find it easy to ignore the sound bites that flatten others and make them one-dimensional. a nigerian author warns us.
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she states, showed a people as one thing over and over again, and that is what they become. we have to always take into account that power as the ability, not only to just tell the story, but to make it a definitive story of that person. the power to determine how stories are told, who tells them and when they are told and how often. a good example of that is when people say, you do not look like an environmentalist. does the way i look tells you that i only have one story -- tell you that i only have one
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story? you have got to be kidding. as lawyers, you will be exposed to many social narrative's. poverty, single mothers, lazy, corporate -- moslem, conservative, democrats. these social narratives are so powerful, we have a hard time not be leaving them. be're daring adventure will to discover how true or untrue such narrative's are. today we are inundated what i call lazy talk. no shame to show how ignorant we are in public. be careful not to relegate others to a single story. when we do that, we lose the possibility to discover ourselves and others.
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she talked about your commitment to social justice and a service. i checked before i thought about this. i was thrilled to hear how much work you are doing. i think social service, volunteerism, even loitering composed the highest calling there is the thought that maybe you do good while you are doing well. urge your cells to see life as either a daring adventure or see nothing. i am proud of you. i am sure that my footsteps into central high school on the road
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to social justice was not in vain. my dignity is upheld by your presence and guaranteed by love. you are the manifestation of everything i could only dream of as a child. i leave you with a poem that i really like. i can grow out platitudes, and gandhi. there is something about the memory of my own graduation that i return to a university as a very mature student. when i was reconfiguring myself, i realize how important my family was to me.
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we talked about this family support. i know you know that. one of the things i forgot about in that special moments ending in the beginning was the withdrawal of i would feel later, because of the loss of that extended family of faculty and fellow students. i wish you well, and let me speak in the world's of antonio machado. wayfarer, there is no road. your footsteps are the road, and nothing else. we make the road by walking. by walking, we make the road. congratulations, and thank you. the [applause]
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>> this week, the house is set to work on 2012 spending bills. a speech from an iraq war veteran on defense spending. he will speak to the heritage foundation, and you can see comments live tomorrow on c- span2. later a panel looks at autism in other countries. the hearing is held by a house of foreign affairs committee. it starts tomorrow at 2:00 p.m. eastern also on c-span2. we continue in a commencement address about healthy eating
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from sweet briar college in virginia. this is a little bit more than 10 minutes. >> 20 years ago i sat in your shoes wondering what i would do with my life. i had no idea. maybe some of you have the same feelings today. you do not have to have it all figured out. but i sat at mount -- my graduation, i will read the
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entire time that i was bought going to pass the political science exam that i had taken two days prior and get my diploma. i 6 boehme -- experienced a lot of anxiety. i did pass and earn my diploma. you might have imagined that i chuckled at myself when i got the invitation to be a commencement speaker. that was the last thing i ever imagined myself doing 20 years ago. i had taken a public speaking class in college saying, i would never have to do that again. here i am today. i am thrilled to share my experiences and let you know that anything is possible. here i was just out of college wondering what was next. i had worked in my parent's retail business and thought, maybe this is what i should do. they had found success, and i wanted to be just like them.
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it really was not my passion. i started to realize that i have a passion for helping disadvantaged kids, and i want to make a difference in their lives. i started applying my degree to become a social worker. 10 years later, something began to change for me. i was not excited about what i was doing. i began imagining new possibilities. i began experimenting in reading and cooking about healthy nutrition. at 30 years old, i took a leap of faith and decided to leave my career and start over. do not be afraid to take that leap of faith and follow your true passion, even if it changes. you never know where it may take you. in the spring of may 2000, 10 years after my graduation, i went to a hike in the rocky mountains. it changed my life.
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i was at the top and thought, why has not someone made a product for truly healthy that tastes delicious. i had an intuitive moment and said, i can do this. i felt excitement knowing this, and a feeling of unstop ability. i began writing down ideas. i began experimenting. i looked for inspiration of a flavors. i would bring test batches to my friends and co-workers. they were honest. they gave me great feedback into someone asked me, could i buy this from you? this was the inspiration i needed to keep going. it is important to follow your intuition and surround yourself with people that support you and
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your dreams. i found out that i cannot get the company going in three months. i started working at a local wholefoods. i figured i could learn about the industry while getting paid. many thought i was crazy. you do not expired to working at a girls' restored on your college day -- supermarket store on your college days. but i've worked hard to stay true to my own vision and dreams. i spoke to anyone who could figure -- help me figure out what i needed to know. there were hard days and weeks where i felt like i got absolutely nowhere. i thought about how easy it would be to give up.
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working at whole foods was one of the best decision i ever made. two years later i ran across a regional by year. he asked how it was going. i said, this is my opportunity. i told them -- he was not expecting me to tell him anything. i had the samples made in my kitchen at home. i presented my products in an informal way. he said i love this. it is such an innovative products. when you're ready, you can bring it to the colorado stores. sometimes your opportunity to seize the moment happens in the most homeless settings. in my case, it was next to a
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trash can. i had a green light from whole foods. the biggest challenge was to find a place to manufacture my product. i went from one place to the next trying to find a place to land. almost one year went by before i could find the place we needed to start manufacturing. the original investors back out because it took so long. i learned not to let other people's lack of confidence affect my vision of what i thought was possible. i decided to keep going. i launched this three years after i had planned. i got my family and friends that helped to make the bars by hand. it took us 15 hours.
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i stopped my next to the other products in the store. two years -- two hours later, i cut up samples of my creation and spoke to people. i felt excitement, nervousness, anticipation, and relieved that i finally made it to store shelves. the response i got were amazing. it became the best-selling item in the store. i knew i was up to something. the press began calling. stores from all over the u.s. and internationally were contacting us. it became the talk of the town. it was exciting, but it was hard to keep up. it was fun making it happen in the making up our own rules along the way. we had our challenges. we were becoming the brand to
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beat. our competitive -- competitors started knocking of our products. we came up with a new chocolate bar. they were supposed to be soft and chewy, but when i cut into them, they were hard as a rock. it was my worst nightmare. we recall almost half a million bars out of distribution, before we even got started. it was a disappointment. we knew it was the right thing to do. and we got a possible trademark infringement call. we named to the product's end reformulated it. i learned not to get a suction the problems but find a solution and move forward. failure is not the end of the world.
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we launched our chocolate brant and continued to thrive. we are one of the leading brands in the industry. in 2008, general mills contacted me about selling the company. the next set of challenges was the head. i knew my limitations. my intuition told me that they were the right company to carry my brand into the future. a day before my 40th birthday, i sold my company to general mills. i continue to be the creative director. when i had an inspiration on a hike 11 years ago, i was following my intuition. it never occurred to me that i would make a product that would compete against multimillion- dollar businesses and become one of them. i followed my passion to see that it could happen.
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the the of like to leave you with the following thoughts. discover and cultivate your passion in your dreams. you will experience more happiness and success in doing what you love. listen to your intuition. it is the tool is part of yourself and will always serve you well. to not be afraid to take risks and experience failure. you can learn the most from these moments, which making stronger and wiser. enjoy your journey. you are the architect of your own life. make up your own roles. the the anything is possible. congratulations and thank you. [applause] >> tuesday, remarks from a secretary of state and regarding
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bilateral talks with china and president obama has a upcoming trip scheduled for july. you get here live comments on tuesday on c-span3. and then they will look at the the power structure and possible witnesses in the system. it stars live at 2:00 p.m. eastern on c-span3. here is the judge monday court of appeals erred is the older sister of donald trump, who was in the audience earlier this month recess -- watching her receive an honorary degree. this is 20 minutes.
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>> we are deeply grateful for the honor that has been afforded to us today. [applause] and families and friends, the class of 2011, and family and friends of mine. i am so happy a to be here and welcomed the class of 2011. [applause] this is one of the great days in your lives. you should savor every moment of its. how lucky you are and how lucky you are to be the recipients of
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a jesuit education. i thought long and hard about what i would say to you today. i have been to a number of commencement addresses. i have heard what is said. i know what the typical commencement address is all about. i have wanted to do something a little different for you, something more personable, even though i am a very private person, who has not said some of what i'm going to tell you before. i wanted to do this for two reasons. first, i revers the jesuits', who together with the fate, quite literally saved my life
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when i lost my husband and my parents within a year of each other. if i can strike a chord of with even some of view by being a little more forthcoming and i venture to suggest that if i say a little more than i have to say, you might be surprised at how much you, the class of 2011, and myself have in common. unless you have been one of the lucky ones who has never been scared or never lacked confidence. let me start with this. neither of my parents had english as a first language.
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my father's father died when he was a teenager, and dad went to work to support his mother and two siblings as a carpenter and as a builder's mule, hauling carts of lumber to construction sites when it was too icy for the mules to climb the hills. my mother was the daughter of a fisherman from the outer areas of scotland, the youngest of 10 children. she came here at age 19 to be a nanny. i was the first one in my family to go to college.
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my first year was tough. i was desperately home sick. i was scared. and i didn't do very well that year. but i graduated, and i went on to be married and become a full-time mother. and only after being a full-time mother for 13 years did i go to law school. my first job out of law school was as one of two women assistant united states attorneys in an office of 62 assistant united states attorneys, and the first woman to do criminal work, appearing only before male judges. scared? every day of my life. and i will tell you that
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between then and now, there were some very tough years that only my son and i really know about. it has been said whatever does not destroy me makes me stronger. now, i tell you this, and i tell you a little of what i've learned along the way. in hopes of encouraging those of you who even on this happy day of your life might be feeling a little apprehensive, a little scared. now, some people feel that most of the lessons of life are
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learned early on. there was a wonderful essay many years ago written by robert fulgron, and he said what you really needed to know about how to live, what to do and how to be he learned in kindergarten this. is some of what he wrote. these are the things i learned. share everything. play fair. don't hit people. put things back where you found them. clean up your own mess. don't take things that aren't yours. say you are sorry when you hurt someone. wash your hands before you eat. flush. learn some, think some, and draw and paint, and sing, and dance, and play, and work every day some.
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take a nap every afternoon. when you go out in the world, watch for traffic, hold hands and stick together. be aware of wonder. there is a lot of wisdom there. indeed, doesn't it seem to very sweetly integrate living and learning, the very foundation of jesuit education? let me add a little of my own wisdom learned since i was in the sandbox. now i am going to mention the word success. i want to make something very clear. when i speak of success, i do not speak only of professional success. success can be as simple as the warm feeling one gets if you
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see a stranger that you sense to be lonely, and smiling at that stranger, and have that stranger return your smile. it can be bringing a child into the world and raising that child to be a good man or a good woman. i have always said my greatest success is my son. it can be conquering a bad habit. it can be taking on a new good habit. it can be reaching a goal you set for yourself. but first of all, remember this. there is no substitute for good old-fashioned hard work. now i know there are things outside of one self that can
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make the difference. luck and the good lord are two of those things. but it is not enough to point to other people's success and attribute it solely to luck. i think that in most cases bs -- by dint of hard work we make our own luck. you sell yourself by working hard. you evidence dedication and a commitment to excellence, critical if success is to come. i am reminded of the story of the rock cutter. i thought of this as i was thinking of what i would say to you today, who cut the rock in two with the hammer on the 101st blow. there are those who say it was the 101st blow that did it. i disagree. it was the 100 blows before
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that one that made success on the 101st possible. determination, hard work, essential to success, whether one defines success as society defines it or whether one defines it quite simply as making something or someone just a little better. i also learned that we can do more than we think we can. we did not braver. we can be stronger. we can be happier in our personal relationship. we can be more successful in our personal careers. but none of this comes without our first believing it and then giving it our best shot with courage, with faith, with hope, happy to be alive and reveling
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and appreciating the many ways in which we grow and improve, never taking these things for granted. i am speaking of attitude. i am speaking of enthusiasm. i am speaking again of hard work. you will never know what you can do unless and until you try . and you will find with every little success, the fears and the insecurities will gradually fade away. but even if you don't succeed in reaching a particular goal, you learn from the reaching. you grow from the trying. and then you try again. someone said no matter, try again, fail again, fail better.
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or in the words of the wonderful scottish pro verb, i am wounded but not slain. i shall lay me down and bleed a while. then i shall rise and fight again. all my life i have worked hard to be a good daughter, a good mother, a good wife, a good sister, a good friend, a good lara, a good judge. and if i have failed in any of these, it was not for won't -- wont of trying. when there are tough decisions to be made, and there will be, and maybe when you are tired of trying, i recommend to you an inner sanctuary to go to, a few
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moments, maybe more, of peace, and reflection and prayer. and critically, as you start on this next phase of your life, never forget the importance of integrity, of doing what is right, of standing on a matter of principle. father daniel barrigan said it well. some stood up and sat down. others stood, and stood and stood. and so i come to what i believe is probably the most important thing i have to tell you. at least it is to me. to whom much is given, much is
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required. st. ignacius linked love of god to love of neighbor. no exercise is better for the ryan newman heart, it is said, than reaching -- for the human heart, it is said, than reaching down and lifting up another person. this is the heart of the living part of the integration of life and learning i referred to a moment ago. this is the heart of what you have been taught here, the vision of finding god in all things. make it more than a vision. look around. see what needs to be done, and do it, because it's right, because you can, because you
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can do it if you try. the jesuits of this great university and their many dedicated colleagues have shown that they have faith in you. repay that act of faith and do whatever you can to see that the sick are healed, the frightened are comforted, the lonely are visited, and that you fulfill the purpose of the educational mission at fairfield to be the global citizens this new and difficult world needs now, to be men and women for others. i leave you with a parable that
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i heard some time ago, and it has stuck with me ever since. a man says to the lord, lord, what is the difference between heaven and hell? and the lord said come, i will show you. and he takes the man into a room, and there is a terrible in the center of the room. on the table is a large pot of delicious-looking and wonderfully smelling stew. and sitting around the table are men and women who are clearly starving, miserable, holding spoons that are much longer than their arms, and so they are unable to feed
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themselves. the lord then takes the man to another room, table in the center of the room, big pot of delicious stew in the middle of the table. but seated around the table are obviously well-fed happy people, also bearing spoons longer than their arms. what, lord, is the difference, said the man? why are they so happy? because they are feeding each other. i return to where i began. my parents lovingly gave me both roots and wings. the roots that keep me committed to faith and to family, and the wings that have brought me here to congratulate
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you most warmly on this wonderful day. god bless you. god bless fairfield university. thank you. [cheers and applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> tuesday on "washington journal," associate editor of the atlantic, chris goode looks at possible republican presidential candidates, including mitt romney, who is expected to kick off his campaign tonight. then bill gertz talks about funding u.s. military operations. the president has threatened to veto one plan. and then major paul kremer on the mission and goal of the rotc program in the military. plus, your e-mails, phone calls
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and tweets. >> we conclude our look at commencement addresses now with remarks from g.e. chairman jeffrey immelt. he spoke to students at the university of maryland last week for about 20 minutes. >> i am honored to be up on the stage. welcome retrievers. it is great to be here. thanks for that introduction and for this honorary degree doctorate of public service. i like the sound of that. it is going to come in handy the next time someone asks me about my credentials to serve with president obama. i have a message for students. you have worked four very long hard years for your dip. i showed up at 10:00 a.m. this morning, and all of a sudden i am the man? doesn't seem quite right. but i do have one thing going
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for me. gemplet will hire 4,000 college graduates this year, and we have a strong recruiting relationship with your school. at least that gives me some credibility with your parents. so congratulations to the class of 2011 and your family and friends. you have completed the course of instruction, and you are prepared for the new challenges that await you. you deserve the praise you receive today. it has been said today, but for the second year in a row, "u.s. news and world report" has recognized this university as an up and coming university in the country. in an effort to make this is place where it is cool to be smart, the president has made unconditional choices. he recruits brain yankees the way some schools recruit
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quarterbacks. he decided not to fund a varsity football team. i played football in college. and i don't play chess. but i did agree with a graduate with a degree in applied mathematics, and i can relate to a university where "math -letes" are cool. i have even before to the roof with freeman and lived to tell the story. gemplet is produced of its connections with umbc. we have been recruiting here for 12 years. we participate in your corporate visibility days since their inception, and we have recruited your grads to many of our leadership programs. like you, we are committed to developing a diverse, well-prepared work force in science and technology.
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people like brian, sasha, and louise work there. imagination, not knowledge, albert einstein said, is true intelligence. that is something we understand very well at g.e. there are many types of occupations to fulfill your potential and make our world better. i am going to speak to you about the world i work in. i am going to give you a sense of who we need you to be, and more importantly, what we need to work on together. there will be opportunities no -- no matter what you do, there will be opportunities for you to lead, to make a difference to the world and to each other. leadership is an honor and not a chore. it is earned and not declared. good leaders are authentic people who are comfortable in their own skins. as i said, i was a math major.
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i like to solve problems. that is what i get up every day trying to do better. i love my job, but not because i wanted to be famous or powerful. i want to be judged by what i do and how i act, not my title. no task is beneath a good leader. learning to enjoy common tasks with others is the way the best careers are built. never stop being curious because you think you know everything. in 1989 i led g.e.'s service business. we had a catastrophic failure of our refrigerators and had to replace three million failures. to learn what was wrong, i knew i personally had to learn how to fix impressors. there is no better way to learn from failure than for a math major to sit on someone's kitchen floor while the ace cream mets.
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good leaders are trance parents. that is more than being honest. you have to be open in spirit and conduct. don't discourage disagreement. even if you reject an alternative idea, give it appreciation. good leaders are smart risk-takers. live your dreams, but don't jump into something just for the hell of it. look ahead. good leaders are determined risk-takers who have done their homework and accountable for their decisions. i run a large company with hundreds of thousands of employees. during the financial crisis i had to make a lot of big decisions very quickly. even if that intense environment, i made informed decisions. we had to act fast, so i listened to our team. i trusted them, and they trusted me. most importantly, leaders are good team builders. make your work about more than
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your own sudden.
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many assume that this country can transition from being technology based economic powerhouse to an economy without any significant loss of prosperity. that assumption has been proven to be wrong. i do not think there is anything inevitable about america's decline if we are prepared in determined to reverse it. we have dramatically changed our own country in the last decade. we wanted to make sure that ge was good at making things. employment and our infrastructure business have grown. 16,000 manufacturing jobs in united states and high-tech services and manufacturing. everybody in this room, no matter what your profession must learn how to live in a global
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marketplace. 95% of the population lives outside. we can only grow as a country by learning how to do business with people outside of the united states. exports have grown from $7 billion to $20 billion in 2010. we are tapping into a great growth markets of our time. today we go to china and india, because that is where the customers are. the future of our region of our economy will depend on how we do in the marketplace. we have to invest more in innovation and be more successful. we have tripled our r and d investment over the last decade. it is important for everybody to be good at the science of science. that is how jobs are created.
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over the past year, we have tried to improve the aircraft engines. 7% used our engines in their aircraft -- seven% of airplanes use power -- 70% of airplanes use our engine. we should be focused on finding real solutions for infrastructure, energy, and affordable health care. there are two crises, one in the middle east, and one in japan. the volatile oil prices emphasized a need for fuel diversity and new technology. how many times did you have to watch massive price increases in
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gasoline before the country does something about it? i think the u.s. can achieve energy security, but we need to commit to it. problems in the american health- care system will take great innovation to solve. we can treat a major diseases more effectively at a lower cost. we can greatly reduce the impact of breast cancer. it is diagnosed in more than 200,000 american women each year. there are rapid technical and feminist -- and advancement in diagnosis and treatment. we can deliver this treatment to every patient, but it takes determination. we need to improve the team work.
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private initiatives and individual freedom are important to progress. we need to improve our competitiveness. government can work to help expand in create jobs, but we have to sustain them. the competitiveness of our markets allow america to lead for generations. we can succeed today. we have to invest more of our cash in the american worker. in the last year, the week went back from the united states. these are high-paying jobs in michigan, kentucky, and other places. america can't compete. we have to be given a chance. to many higher-paying jobs have left the u.s.. people feel a hopelessness that they have been left behind in the mistakes of others.
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they no longer compete. when people lose confidence in their future, they act on their fears and not their hopes. with anger, cynicism, and populism do not create jobs or growth. they cannot create progress, only fear. there is nothing more contrary to your character or the character to all americans and this kind of hopelessness. i am here to tell you that the american dream is not a dead. we simply did not respond as well as we could have. the the this can change. it depends on you. you must believe that you personally make a difference and work for your success. the value of college education is to have a life filled with hope.
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a live without fear. solving problems is a great opportunity. you have been prepared to make your own bible contributions to progress and to have purposeful lives in the process. every american generation has the chance to be the greatest generation. every generation faces challenges that look pretty daunting at the time. they were at the beginning of a another chapter at least -- in the story of our success. i have confidence that you are up to the task. the source of my optimism is my great confidence in the power of young people. you are the best response to cynicism. show the world what you can do. i was a little sad when i graduated from college. i was worried that i had had all
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of the fun that i was ever going to have. i am happy to report there are pretty amazing days ahead. congratulations to the class of 2011. welcome to your beginning. be true to yourself. [applause] be true to yourself and honest with others. be humble, brave, and make your purpose bigger than your own success. make a choice. join a small group of optimistic, hard-working, problem solvers. thanks for letting me be a small part of your big day. thanks. [applause] >> wonderful. >> tuesday, remarks from house
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minority member sector in the u.s. -- manufacturing sector of the u.s. that is at 11:00 a.m. eastern on tuesday. and the legislative house, they will look at a bill spends -- sponsored by david kempe, aimed at raising the nation's debt ceiling. they will also look at the home of a security department. . the c-span video library makes it easy to follow campaign to 2012. you can get access to
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announcements and information about presidential candidates. the c-span video library is washington your way. >> earlier today, president obama went to arlington national cemetery at the tomb of the unknowns, honoring those that sacrificed their lives for the nation. here is a look.
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♪ ♪ "star spangled banner" ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ "taaps" ♪ --taps "
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♪ ♪
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[unintelligible] ♪ ♪ [patriotic music] ♪
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[unintelligible] admiral michael mullen, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. the hon. robert m. gates
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se >> they are honorable robert m. gates, secretary of defense. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states. [applause] ladies and gentlemen. >> please join me for the invocation -- [inaudible] you make yourself known tus
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three wondro through -- your wondrous works and creations. from our earliest beginnings, you have guided us in times of adversity and prosperity, through a periods of war and peace. among all the nations of the earth, america has been richly blessed in extraordinary ways. we turned it to you today to remember with honor and respect our fellow citizens who have fought in wars as members of our armed forces could many of these a gallon americans died before our enemy' -- gallant americans die before our enemy's guns in the third of their youth. many of these patriots are long dead. time will never dim the glory of
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their deeds nor the sting of their loss. we remember them and honor their sacrifice. enable us to fully embrace the legacy of valor, duty, and sacrifice of these quiet heroes, american heroes who caused our flag to fly high and with honor, and allow us to take up the light of liberty that they have given also that our watch may remain undimmed. it is for this we pray, amen. >> please join in the united states marine band in the singing of our national anthem. see o say can you by the dawn's early light what so proudly we hailed at teh twiligh -- the
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twilight's last gleaming whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight over the ramparts we watch or so gallantly streaming and the rockets' red glare at the bombs bursting in air gave birth throughhe night that our flag was still there o say does that star spangled banner yet wave for the land of the free and the home of the brave ♪ [applause]
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>> please specibe seated. ladies and gentlemen, admiral mullen. >> mr. president, secretary gates, secretary shinseki, members of congress, distinguished guests, veterans, fellow americans, and most especially, families of our fallen warriors, welcome. if it is true that the nation defines itself by those it honors, then on this day and in this place, let it be known that america is still the finds itself -- defines itself as t most noble of the nation's. we he been represented and we ve been defended and we have been made free not solely by the
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mere strength of our ideals, but the courage of young men and women who have been willing to die to preserve those ideals. soldiers in battle will tell you, and they will mean it, that they fight primarily for each other, that they are driven forward under fire by an earnest desire not to let each other down. but they would not have been placed in that and have not been so ready to sacrifice themselves were it not for a deep love of country, fondness for home, and a heart beating with ardor for the lives and livelihoods of their loved ones. that is, i believe, how they would most like to be remembered, those who have fallen and areissing, not for the lives of the lost, but for the ones they lived, the ones they protected, the once they saved. their legacy is not in the
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death. it is ultimately not in their sacrifice. it is in the sunrises and sunsets, the birthdays and holidays, the first dates and the fstborns, all the cherished moments they have made possible for the families they left behind, and for the thousands of their brothers and sisters in arms still out there, on a point and on patrol. their legacy is in the hopes we yet harbor, the dreams we get share, the laughter and tears, the fear, the joy and love, all the things that make us human, all the things that make us alive. these are their gifts to us. life is their legacy. let us lift it to the top. let us mourn at, yes, they're
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passing, but let us also promise ourselves to do th which we can every day starting today to prove worthy of what our fallen have given us at so great a cost. let us look after their children, let us and bind up the wounds of their comrades, let us remember that the best of what america represents to the world lies here in these and other hollow places -- hallowed places, but the best of who we are as americans live in our own hearts and actions brought what we do to honor those who have rendered this last full measure of devotion. today we must solemnly remember. tomorrow, we must generously live. those brave who sleep here ask for nothing more than we who survived them to demand of ourselves nothing less.
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god bless our fallen, the missing, and their families, and god bless america. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, this and now to the staff sergeant of the united states marine band performs "america the beautiful." ♪ >> ♪ oh beautiful fo spacious skies for amber waves of grain for purple mountain majesties above the fruited plain
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america, america on theeis grace and crown thy good with brotherhood from sea to shining sea ♪ ♪ oh beautiful for patriot dream that sees beyond thy years thine alabaster cities gleam undimmed by tears
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america, america theehed his gracve on and crown thy good with brotherhood fr sea to shining sea ♪ [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, secretary of defense andgates. [applause] >> mr. president, and veterans,
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active service members, families, welcome. for many americans, memorial day is a welcome respite from work, an extra day to spend at the beach or finish errands. we must never forget that it is foremost an occasion to reflect, to remember, and to honor the bre men and women who have fought and died for us. each year we set aside a single day to reflect on the service of our armed forces and generations past and present. a day where we must also honor the sacrifices of a military mily members, who in recent years have borne the brunt of it repeated deployments, long pargings -- partings, and the fear of receiving the knock on the door with the worst of all possible news. i urge all americans to remember that just as each and every day troops faithfully serve their mission to protect us, so each and every day they deserve our recognition, our respect, and
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our conscious gratitude. every soldier, sailor, airman, marine and coast guard wearing the uniform today and enlisted or re-enlisted, knowing they would serve at at time of war -- as eucidydes put it, the best are the ones who know what danger is before them, and yet and go out to meet it. i know this will be my the final opportunity to stand and speak at this place and paid tribute to the fallen. it is up to us to be worthy of their sacrifice in the decisions we make, the priorities we said, the support we provide the troops, and veterans, and their families. for the rest of my lif i will keep these brave patriots and their loved ones in my heart and my prayers. as i know does their commander
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in chief, who has so steadfastly serve those bearing the brunt of the fight. i have had under a severe with president obama the past five years -- had the honor of serving with president obama the past five years. he has never shrunk from the tough decisions, the heavy buens, and its responsibilities of command -- the true responsibilities of command. is my privilege and my honor to introduce the president of the united states. [applause] >> thank you. thank you so much. pleasee seated. thank you, secretary gates, and thank you for your extraordinary service to our nation.
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i think that bob gates will go down as one of our finest secretaries of defense in our history, and it has been an honor to serve with him. i also want to say -- [applause] i also want to say a word about admiral mullen. on a day when we are announcing his successor as chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, and as he looks forward to it will deserve retirement later this year -- a well-deserved retirement later this year. admiral mullen, on behalf of all americans, we want to thank you for your four decades of service to this great country. [applause]
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we want to thank deborah mullen as well for her extraordinary service, major general kyl course, the commanding general of our military district of washington, nancy horst, the superintendent of arlington national cemetery, as well as his lovely wife, doree and to the chaplain. thank you for your extraordinary rvice. [applause] it is a great privilege to return here to our national sanctuary, this most hallowed ground, to commemorate memorial day with all of you. americans have come to pay their respects.
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with members of our military and their families. with veterans whose service we will never forget and we will always honor. with families whose loved ones rest all around as an eternal peace -- us in an eternal peace. to those of you who mourn the loss of a loved one today, my heart goes out to you. i love my daughter is more than anything in the world. i cannot imagine using them. i cannot imagine this in a sister or brother or parent at war -- losing a sister or brother or parent at war. the grace so many you can read in art's is agreed i cannot fully now -- grief so many you carry in your hearts is a grief i cannot fully know. this day is all about you, and it is a day that has meaning for all americans, including mae.
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it is one of my highest honors, my mossolemn responsibility as president, to serve as commander in chief of one of the finest fighting forces the world has ever known. [applause] and it is a responsibility to carry the special weight on this day. it carries a special weight each time i meet with our goldstar families and i see the pride in their eyes, but also the tears of pain that will never fully go away. each time i sit down i at my desk and signed a condolence letter to the family of a fallen, sometimes the family will write me back and tell me about their daughter or son that they have lost, or a friend will write me a letter about what they're battle buddy meant
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to them. i received one such letter from an army veteran after i visited arlington a couple of years ago. paul saw is a photograph of me walking through section 60, where the heroes who fell in iraq and afghanistan lay. the headstone marked the final resting place of a staff sergeant, joe, who he told me was a friend of his, one of the best man he had ever known, who was always there to lend a hand come from being a volunteer coach to helping to build a playground. it was a moving the letr, and paul closed it with a few words about the hallowed cemetery where we are gathered today. "the venerable warriors assembled their 4knew full
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well the risks of military service and it felt pride in defending our democracy. the true lesson of arlington is that each headstone is that of a patriot. each headstone shares a story. thank you for letting me share with you this story about my friend joe." the staff sergeant was a patriot, like all the venerable warriors who lay here and across this country and around the globe. each of them at honor to what it means to be a soldier, sailor, airman, marine, and cotguardsman. each of them a link in an unbroken chain that stretches back to the earliest days of our republic. on this day, we memorialize them all.
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we memorialize our first patriots, blacksmiths and farmers, slaves and free men, who never knew the independence they won with their lives. we memorialize the armies of men and women disguised as men, black and white, who fell in apple orchards and corn fields in a war that saved our union. we memorialize those who gave their lives on the battlefield of our times, from normandyo manila, inchon, baghdad, helmand, jungles, does its, city streets around the world -- desert city streetsround the world. what bonds this chain together across generations is the chain of honor and sacrifice, not only a common cause. our country's it causes --
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country's cause. but also a spirit captured in the book of isiah, mailed to me by the famil a second lieutenant. "when i heard the voice of the lord sing who shall i send, who shall go for us? i said, here i am, send me." that is what we memorialize today, that spirit that says "send me, no matter the mission. send me, no matter the risk. send me, no matter the sacrifice." the patriots we memorialize today sacrificed not only all they had, but all the whatever no. they gave of themselves until
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theyad nothing more to give. it is natural when we lose someone we care about to ask why it had to be them, why my son, why my sister, why my friend, why no me. these are questions that cannot be answered by us. but on this day, we remember that it is on our behalf that they gave our lives -- their lives. we remember that it was their courage, their unselfishness and devotion to duty that sustained this country for all its files and will sustain it for all the trials to come. we remember that the blessings we enjoy as americans came at a dear cost, that our presence here today as a free people in every society bears testimony to their enduring legacy.
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our nation owes a debt to its fallen heroes that we can never fully repay. but we can honor their sacrifice, and we must. we must honor it in our own lives by holding their members close to our hearts and heeding the example they set. and we must honor it as a nation by keeping our sacred trust with all who wear america's uniform, and families who love them, never giving up the search for those who have gone missing in our countries flag or held as prisoners of war, by serving our patriots as well as they serve us from the moment they enter the military to the moment they leave at to the moment they are laid to rest. that is how we can honor the sacrifice of those we've lost. that is our obligation to
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america's guardians. travis, the sonke of a marin who aspired to follow in his father's footsteps and was accepted by the u.s. naval academy. his roommate at the academy was brendan, a star athlete and a born leader from a military family just like travis. the two became best friends, like brothers, brendan said. after graduation, they deployed ,travis to iraq, brendan to korea. on april 29, 2007, while fighting to rest of his fellow marines, travis was killed. brendan did what he had to do, he kept going, poured himself into his seal training and dedicated it to the friend he
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missed. he married the woman he loved and with his tour in three behind him, he deployed to afghanistan ho. he gave his n life along with eight others in a helicopter crash. heartbroken, yet filled with pride, they knew only one way to honor their son's friendship. they moved travis from this cemetery and a pennsylvania and buried them side-by-side in arlington. "warris for freedom" reads the epitaph written by travis' father. "brothers forever." the friendship between first lieutenant travis and lt.
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brendan reflects the meaning of the memorial day. brother road, a sacrifice, love of country -- brotherhood, a sacrifice, love of country. it is my prayer that we honor the memory of the fallen by living out those ideals every of our lives, and the military and beyond. may god bless the souls of the venerable warriors we have lost and the country for which they died. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, please remain outstanding for the playing of -- remain standing
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for the playing of "taps" and a benediction. ["taps" playing]
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>> go into the world to preserve the peace, remember the wisdom you have learned and the courageous, cling to that which is good always, resist evil to the utmost, lif up the oppressed, defended the helpless, honor god, fear no man, above all, love and serve the lord. amen. >> ladies and gentlemen, please remain in place until the president has departed. ♪
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[applause]
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>> ladies and gentlemen, enjoy your day.
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>> earlier today president obama named his new chief of staff. he will be replacing admiral mullen. this is 10 minutes from the rose garden. >> theirs was the ultimate
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sacrifice. every man and woman who wears an american uniform is prepared to make it so that we can live a free. the men and women of our armed forces are the best that our nation has to offer. they deserve nothing but our best in return. that includes leaders that will guide them in support to their families with wisdom and strength in compassion. that is what i expect as commander in chief as we work to keep our nation secure and our military the finest in the world. i announced last month leonora -- leon panetta as our defense secretary who will replace bob gates, who joins us today. i found a leader that will complete our team at the pentagon. i am proud to announce him today as chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, the vice chairman, and
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to succeed in general dempsey as chief of staff of the army, general ray odierno. this is important to me and my national security defense team. i have been very grateful of the leadership of the admiral mike mullen and the vice chair. these men have served our nation with distinctions for decades. i look forward to paying tribute to their lives and their service in the months ahead. personallued mike's integrity. ever military forces have excelled under his watch. he has helped revitalize nato.
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they are steering our relationship with pakistan in china. mike mullen was the chairman who said what he believes is right and said no one should have to sacrifice their integrity to serve their country. i have benefited enormously from the council of one person who has the technical expertise and is a strategic thinker. i will always be grateful to him for his friendship and partnership. as he concludes four decades of service, he can do so knowing that our nation is more secure in the stronger because of his remarkable career. i know that michelle joins me in saluting their wives for their decades of extraordinary
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service, especially as champions of our inspiring military families. with the advice and consent of the senate, it is our hope and expectation that leon panetta will take the reins as secretary of defense. the term of admiral mullen and this fall. it is essential that this transition be seamless and that we stay focused on the verge of national security challenges that stay before us. i thank them for the continuity that will be provided during this transition. martin dempsey is one of our nation's most respected and combat tested generals. he trained iraqi forces and is known -- and the nations must take their responsibility in for
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their decisions. just as he challenged the army, i expect him to push all of ever forces to keep adapting and innovating to be ready for the mission of today and tomorrow. i was proud to nominate him as army chief of staff. he only assumed that position last month. your tenure as chief may be one of the shortest in army history. it is your lifetime accomplishments that brings us here today. we thank you for taking on this assignment with your wife into three children, all of whom have served in the army. i want our men and women in uniforms to hear the words that you spoke to your soldiers on the first day as chief. we will provide whatever it takes to achieve our objectives
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in the current fight. as vice chairman, he will bring more than 30 years of distinguished service. a strike group played a critical role in iraq. having served as a nato commander, having served on the joint of staff, he is known and trusted here at the white house. he has been responsible for our homeland and our state in times of crisis such as the tornadoes and floods due to the mississippi. sandino's that we have to be prepared for the full range of challenges. i thank you for and your wife
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and sons for your continued service. i have selected them because of their record and potential as individuals. i have selected them because they will make an extraordinary team, despite their competing loyalties to the army and navy. they bring a deep experience. they have the respect of our troops on the front line, congress, and our allies. they have my full confidence. the chairman and vice chairman will have the experience of leading combat operations in the year since 9/11. the enterprise was returning home from the persian gulf, when word came of the tax years ago.
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rather than wait for orders, stanley took the initiative to put his ship within a range of afghanistan by the next morning, setting the stage for the strikes that followed. a few years later, he got new orders. he shifted to new parts of iraq and defeated an insurgent uprising. it was a remarkable maneuver. people across the army are proud to see one of their own. i know this means in losing their new chief in the time of war. i am nominating one of the most accomplished shoulders in the army, general ray odierno. in a pivotal deployment to iraq, he let the capture of pseudomonas same -- pseudomonas
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thai-- sadam hussein. and he will help preserve the readiness of the families for the strength of american families. he brings this dedication to our soldiers. his wife and children support him. i urge our friends in the senate to confirm these outstanding individuals as quickly as possible. they are innovative, flexible, focused on the future, and deeply devoted to our troops and families. we have much to do, from bringing our troops home to iraq to reducing our forces in
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afghanistan. defeating al qaeda and protecting the libyan people. we have to make difficult budget decisions. above all, i will be looking to you and the rest of the joint chiefs for what i value most in our advisers. the advice and the full range of options, especially when it comes to our most solemn obligation, protecting the lives of our great men and women in uniform. we have no greater responsibility, as we are reminded today about those that sacrificed so that we can enjoy the blessings of freedom. thank you for your patriotic service ensure readiness to lead once more. thanks very much, everybody.
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[unintelligible] >> this week the house is set to begin work on 2012 spending bills. tuesday, a speech from house republican freshmen on defense spending, allen west. you can see his comments live tomorrow at 10:30 a.m. eastern on c-span2. and later, a house panel looks at autism. the hearing is held by a house of foreign affairs subcommittee that starts live at 2:00 p.m. eastern also on c-span2.
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last month, a group of former nasa space shuttle commanders shared their experiences at a compose him -- symposium. this is about one hour. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] 1] each commander as much time as possible, i will keep the introductions brief. there are more detailed bios in your brief right there. the leadoffommander earned his astronaut wings in the x-15 rocket powered researc craft, flying to a maximum altitude of 280,600 feet. in 1977, he flew pioneering approach and landing tests in the and powered spatial
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ototype at edwards air force base. he later commanded to orbital missions aboard columbia and discovery. representing the flight test vehicle enterprise is the retired air force major general, joe engell. with three shuttle missions to his credit, our next commander played a key rolen returning the prime to flight following thchallenger tragedy. he continues to serve the space program as a a senior executive oeing division. please welcome brewster shaw.
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the next commander commanded challenger on the program's first mission to launch and land at night. representing challenger is richard truly. nasa's first female shuttle commander, is a veteran of four missions. she helped orbiting be chandra x-ray technician.
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eileen collins. our next commander is a veteran of three missions aboard challenger come and atlantis, dedicated to the department of defense payloads. he retired as the agency's deputy administratornd continues to consult with the space community. representing atlantis, fred gregory. lobbying four shuttle missions, the sixth commander flew challenger, discovery, columbia, and the maiden voyage of endeavor is endeavor mission featured four eva's. reprenting endeavour, retired
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navy captain daniel brandon stein. -- brandenstein. these arell commanders, but before we get started, with every after not here tod who has flown on the space shuttle please stand and be recognized. thank you. ok, joe, you're up. >> i am not sure my mike is working. thank you very much, and i would like to say how proud i am be part of this symposium, part of this forum. . i want to start the airplane i
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am representing is the enterprise. one thing i have told a lot of peop at a couple of interviews is that as far as cdr goes, during the first to flights into orbit, there are only two people aboard the airplane, the sce shuttle. the space shuttle is a pretty busy airplane to fly. to have a designation of commander and pilot is a little and big u.s. trade in my opinion there were two commanders aboard, richard and i. we shared the duties. commanders -- the only reason you call one a commander is case something goes wrong, commanders try on every mission to distribute the tasks equitably among the crew.
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of course, on the alt program, the war only two flights -- there were only two people on board. my task was to distribute flying equitably. we swapped control of the airplane back and forth. i will show you when vick is flying and when i am flying, and in retrospect i screwed up, because he got more flying time than i did. we are trying to have that do that all over again. the enterprise was a unique vehicle from her siblings 3 she was never intended to fly into and from space treat she did not have the thermal protection system. she had styrofoam sheets that were molded in the same thing thisso she would have the same
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hour mold line. the wing leading edges were not the rcc that would have absorbed the heat. she had a couple of sections that were rcc to test, but she lost those later on when she went to the smithsonian. she did not have the main engine system, the high-speed turbo pumps, the weight of the hydraulics to gimble on. she had locked up engine bells, so aerodynamically should give the same drag and characteristics as the airplane coming back from orbit. the albert mold lined, albert-- the outer mold line, she was an order, but she weighed less than
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the orbiter's. she was a lightweight hurt job was very poor. her job was to gather as much her dynamic data as possible to confirm the air dynamic data base for the flight engineers and planners, who did get all the coefficients, the secondary school officials, -- coefficients, so the air dynamics would know about how much margin there was in maneuvering and not have to rely on wind tunnel data. her job was important. in addition to gathering as much data, to confirm these databases, her job was to check
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out the flight control system and to check out and modify the flight control system where it was needed. we did make some rather significant changes to the gain, s and filters in the flight control systems. we saved ourselves embarrassment by coming back and trying to land with less than ideal weather conditions. later on when we got into the orbital flight program. she was to gain flight experience and maturation on andems, like the apu's hydraulics. how they would play together. the approach and landing test program consisted of three different kind of li a free there was a program where she made it to the top of the 747
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with no pilot on board, but getting her ever dynamic data. then the activex program where she stayed megan, but we would move the services slightly to begin to get some of the date on how affective -- effective the services were. then the free flight program. it was reduced to eightlights and then five flights. it was not a necessarily an indication that we were not obtaining data. they were anxious to shorten it up and transfer resources to the orbital flight programs. we flew five flights, three with them the tail cone on, that reduces drag, and allows you to lighter file.
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we h a very comfortable flight. tail cone off, it kept your attention. one comment that i would like to make before i get into this film, and i think everyone feels this way, is that i personally am convinced that we will look back on the space shuttle program and say this space shuttle, s was the most capable workforce that we will ever have had the privilege to put back in airspace barn. i do not think we will -- [applause] you can quote me on that, and if we build something better than
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the shuttle, i will eat my words in front of you. i do not think we will ever do it, -- we will have to do it fast. i have alluded to the fact we tried to share of high living task during approach and landing tests. i have a short video. it las two minutes in 20 seconds. it is not -- as is the ente flight from separation of the 747 to landing. you will see a budget splat. we got that sucker on takeoff. that was so refreshing to know that -- and we really love that. i will tell you when i am flying and richard is flying. one thing we figured out we
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could do. it was difficult to get the desired inputs, this that inputs and the balance -- doublets and still maintain the basic parameters that we wanted to give the engineers the data, maintaining a certain angle of attack. kind of the fght control hasem the speace shuttle was very difficult to do. it had electronic flight control systems, and richard and i were able to try out technique of one of us holding the basic profiles steady while the other vote was cutting test kit that includes, overlaying than on. richard is trying desperately to hold an accurate profile and manage and the g, and i'm
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disturbing him by putting these inputs in. i'd want to show you what the film looks like. if you could roll of film and i hope -- here we go. here is the bug right there. we got himight there. we just separated from the 747 it has gone off to the left. richard is pushing over now and he has this thick and i should point out we are going to touch do up here, and i lost sight of the touchdown here. i looked out the window and that is what i saw. he had pushed over to over 36 degrees pitch. heres the rudder cake. we are accelerating to the next day that point, recfiguring with speed brakes.
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there will be a role or pitch input. now the pinch back to the angle of attack. doug cook is here in the audience. i have the stick back now, and i am starting to clear creek steak is getting ready to put the year down. we cannot see that touchdown point. it is about up in here, and we are in the flare. when we touch down we still have a couple of directional controls. here we are rented touchdown right about there. you will see the nose veer off to the right. then dick and i decided -- we have differential breang to see how effective it was. still sharing the load. we have practiced this in the
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same area. we've got a little bit of all wabble here. it was not visible from the ground cameras. we were able to slip that time. one more thing, and i've were known as the serious crime -- crew. we had a theme song. if you remain remember, a country-western song. we had nicknamed the 747 lucille. we agreed he would pull e on fitz, and the sound of guys, if you could put commander truly's mike on, let you know the routine. we would come off on separation and i would push the button and
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into "you pickedreak a fine time to leave me, lucille." [applause] >> thank you very much, joe. and dick. >> that is a tough one to follow, for sure. columbia was a tough order. columbia was the first launch vehicle of any kind that on its very first flight of all the long flight elements of that staff very people the orbit and
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got them back safely, and it continued to do that for a very long time and god bless john young and bob crippen giving us a chance to follow them into orbit. first stage, all the orders are pretty much the same. -- the first stage, all or biters are pretty much the same period a nice smooth? because columbia was a very stf vehicle. i compared it to atlantis, you could feel it as an oil can a little bit. columbia was rock solid. my experience with john on sts9 with the guys we were with us,
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we were doing space lab 1 mission, and we had to do a lot of maneuvers, and this was early in the program, and the software had not been refined. we had to do these maneuvers one at that time, cut them into the computer. we did 215 maneuvers and took us over 15,000 keystrokes trip we spent a lot of time punching those little buttons on that thing. the interesting part of sts 9 relative to the orbiter itself, and i did not blame this on columbia, just the nature of the beast, when we were getting ready wedeorbit, it has five general purpose computers cricke. if you have a software problem, the fifth one will take over. we had gpc 1 and 3 u, and we
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had been flying a 25-pound thruster thehole flight to do these maneuvers, and we had enabled the primary thrusters, and they were likely be cannons. when the fire in the back and, not too bad, but when they fire in the front, it gets your attention. we got to a dead -- the autopilot, and one of these things fired up, and immediately got something on the computer. the computer failed. at that point we had not had a gpc failure on warburg. we get out of pocket checklist and go through one gpc failure
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malfunction, and six minutes later the primary jet fires, and crt 2 fas. so we have two of the computers failed and no one is home flying the ship. we activated another computer and got it under control, and we start talking to the ground and we do what is called a dump, down to the ground and the analyze it, and they reinitial program load. gpc never got to recover. gpc 2 we got to get back on line. ground did not feel comfortable letting us land. they were going to analyze a situation. we had this time.
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the way. as we were running shifts , with three people on one thing, john had blown up along tons, so he went to the mid deck to take a nap while we were waiting around. he was down there may be three hours, and finally he came back up to the flight deck and he was very angry with us from a i try to go down there and sleep and you guys are up here making all this noise fr. when i told him, that was not us, that was our measurement number one beating itself to death, his eyes got about that day. now have two gpc's with a problem, and we had to set ourselves up for entry in a different configution. we did that. the ground gave us right
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instructions. we got that thing set up all right. we flew entry and entry was pretty nominal from that standpoint until the nose gear hit the ground after we landed, when that happened gpc 2 failed all over again. that is a cake, because there is still other gpc's and we just rolledut and stopped. an unusual thing happened during the post-landing operation when i was getting ready to shut off the auxiliary power unit, which are the units in attackback. one of the declared and others under spd- an failure shut down. john and i did not know what that is about, but we got a call latern that told us that apu's 1 and 2 both had the same
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failure, a failure of a shaft that input is the hydrazine, that spewed into all over the apu's in the back of the or biter. it started the fire back there, and we were burning from about 40,000 feet down on these two apu's, and after shut down more hydrazine out and detonated and made a mess in the back of columbia that they had to fix up before we could fly her again. other than that, it was pretty swell. [laughter] it was a thrill to have the opportunity to fly with captain john young, a man who i have the greatest respect for, and i sure wish him well. he led us into space with the
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space shuttle program, and look at all the opportunities we have given to all the human beings ththrill of space with the system. i think i must be at a time. -- i think i must be out of time. thank you. >> thank you. ok, dick, you're up next. >> thanks. i am representing challenger. she was named for his majesty's ship challenger which was a research vessel that left portsmouth, england, in 1872 and changed the course of science, in three years, sailing around
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world, doing oceanography, but in the atlantic and pacific. challenger the space shuttle was in our fleet less than three years. during that time, in less than three years, she flew 10 missions, and of course, was lost on january 28,986, as we all know. her loss changed the course of space history, and it also changed the course of my history because i got pulled out of where i was in naval space command to go back and responsible and had catered -- in headquarters for investigation and recovered. all that is another story worth another long panel. in those conditions that she flu, frankly, it was a hell of a ride. she launched the first woman in
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space, the first african- ameran in space, and that picture of a bruise mccandless untethered, on the first untethered eva the black stars behind him. for dan, who was in the right seized on our flight sts8, first that meant the most to me -- i cannot speak for dan -- we got to make the first night launch and night landing of the space shuttle program. we did this because we had an indian satellite in the payload bay. we had to launch about 2:00 in the morning to get that satellite to the right place, and if you do the flight mechanics a week later, you are one to land somewhere around
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2:00 in the morning. we got out to the launch pad. jay reminded me last night of us looking into the night sky in seeing lightning. we were surrounded by thunderstorms. i was convinced we were not want to go. i told the crew that and i was almost asleep at the nine minute hold, and suddenly they said you are coming out of the nine minute hole in one minute. -- nine minute hold in one minute. the first night landing was a real privilege. with joe, i had flown first enterprise, which made all this possible. then we had backed up john and cripp and flew sts 2, and here
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was an opportunity to open up the capability for the rest of program. it reminded me of when i went out to make my first night care plan the and i hadn officer named duke, and i was nervous and young, and he said, dick, don't worry about a thing. it is just like coming aard ship in the daytime. he just cannot see what you are doing. standing in the way of making them night landing for dan and me, the fact that we had a heads up this late in challenger that we have not had in colombia in the early days. frankly, we felt like for the job at hand, we wanted a simple heads up display that

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